# Bilinear descriptor system

## Model description:

Consider the following bilinear descriptor system:

$$\begin{pmatrix} 1 & -1\\ 0 & 0 \end{pmatrix}x_{k+1}=\begin{pmatrix} -0.5 & 1\\ -1 & 0 \end{pmatrix}x_{k}+\begin{pmatrix} 0.5 & 0.25\\ -1 & 0.5 \end{pmatrix}x_{k}u_{k}.$$

## Publication details:

 Title Stabilization of Discrete-time Bilinear Descriptor Systems Publication Type Conference Paper Authors Lu, Guoping, Zhang Xiaomei, Tang Hongji, and Zhou Lei

# Power plant superheater

## Model description:

In the operation of a power plant superheater, exacting demands are made on the steam temperature maintenance at the outlet. For temperature control at the outlet of a superheater, the relevant system state is the temperature pattern along the superheater tube. This is described by a distributed-parameter system, which involves an infinite number of state variables. To derive a simplified model for control purposes, the superheater is divided into segments, and a lumped model is derived, which represents a finite number of intermediate temperatures.

Assuming that the pressure inside the tube is constant, the enthalpy of the steam satisfies the relation $dH = C_pdT(kcal/kg)$ , where $C_p(kcal/kg^{\circ}C)$ is the constant-pressure specific heat. Hence, we conclude that the heat supplied to the following fluid(steam) only increases its enthalpy, $dH = dQ$ , where $Q$ denotes the heat. In the above equations, it is assumed that convection is the exclusive heat transfer mode for the superheater. Hence the heat transfer from to metal $Q_{ms}(kcal/s)$ and from gas to metal $Q_{gm}(kcal/s)$ are expressed in terms of the heat transfer rates from gas to metal $\alpha_{gm}(kcal/m^2s^{\circ}C)$ and from metal to steam $\alpha_{ms}(kcal/m^2s^{\circ}C)$ and heating surface $S(m^2)$ :

\begin{align*} \alpha_{ms}S_1(T(l,t)-T(l,t)) &=Q_{ms} \\ \alpha_{gm}S_2(T_m(l,t)-T(l,t)) &=Q_{gm}. \end{align*}

It is also assumed that the heat transfer rates $\alpha_{gm}$ and $\alpha_{ms}$ are constants.

Now, to simulate the profile of superheated steam precisely, it is necessary to divide the superheater into $n$ segments as shown in the attached image.

In the first segment, the desuperheater is included and system is modified as follows:

\begin{align*} V_s\rho C_p\frac{{\mathrm d} x_1}{{\mathrm d}t} &={C_{p}}{T_{i}}{w_{i}}-{C_{p}}({w_{i}}+{w_{d}}){x_{1}} +{\alpha_{ms}}{S_{1}}({z_{1}}-{x_{1}})+{C_{pd}}{T_{d}}{w_{d}}\\ M_mC_m \frac{{\mathrm d}z_1}{{\mathrm d}t} &={\alpha_{gm}}{S_{2}}(T{g_{1}}-{z_{1}})-{\alpha_{ms}}{S_{1}}({z_{1}}-{x_{1}}), \end{align*}

where $x=[x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n]^{\mathrm T}=[T_1,T_2,\ldots,T_n]^{\mathrm T}$, $z=[z_1,z_2,\ldots,z_n]^{\mathrm T}=[T_{m1},T_{m2},\ldots,t_{mn}]^{\mathrm T}$, and $T_{mi}(^{\circ}C)$ are metal temperature, $T_i(^{\circ}C)$ are steam temperature, $i=1,\ldots,n$.

## Attachment: superheater.gif

## Publication details:

 Title Controller design for the bilinear system Publication Type Conference Paper Authors Lee, Sang-Hyuk, Jeon Byeong-Seok, Song Chang-Kyu, Kim Ju-Sik, Kim Sung-Soo, and Jang Young-Soo

# A linear system

## Model description:

Consider a linear system represented by the transfer function

$$G(s)=\dfrac{c}{s(s+a)}$$

where $a$ and $c>0$ are unknowns constants, and the reference model

$$G_m(s)=\dfrac{\omega^2}{s^2 + 2\zeta\omega s + \omega^2}.$$

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## Attachment: a_linear_model.mdl

## Publication details:

 Title Adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems represented by input-output models Publication Type Journal Article Authors Khalil, H.K.

# Single link manipulator with flexible joints

## Model description:

A single link manipulator with flexible joints and negligible damping can be represented by

\begin{align*} I\ddot{q}_1 + MgL\sin{q_1} + k(q_1 - q_2) &= 0 \\ J\ddot{q}_2-k(q_1-q_2) &=u, \end{align*}

where $q_1$ and $q_2$ are the angular positions, and $u$ is a torque input. The physical parameters $g, I, J, k, L,$ and $M$ are all positive. Taking $y=q_1$ as the output, it can be verified that $y$ satisfies the fourth-order differential equation

$$y^{(4)}=\dfrac{gLM}{I}(\dot{y}^2\sin{y}-\ddot{y}\cos{y})- \left(\dfrac{k}{I}+\dfrac{k}{J}\right)\ddot{y}-\dfrac{gkLM}{IJ}\sin{y}+\dfrac{k}{IJ}u.$$

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## Publication details:

 Title Adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems represented by input-output models Publication Type Journal Article Authors Khalil, H.K.

# A smooth nonlinear system (2)

## Model description:

The system

\begin{align*} \dot{x}_1 & = x_4^2 + x_3^3 + u_1 + au_2 \\ \dot{x}_2 & = x_3 \\ \dot{x}_3 & = \sin{x_4}+\cos{x_1}+bu_1 + u_2 \\ \dot{x}_4 & = -x_4 \\ y_1 &= x_1 \\ y_2 &=x_2. \end{align*}

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## Publication details:

 Title Input-output models for a class of nonlinear systems Publication Type Conference Paper Authors Atassi, A.N., and Khalil H.K.